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The seriously acclaimed laboratory usual, tools in Enzymology, is among the so much hugely revered courses within the box of biochemistry. for the reason that 1955, every one quantity has been eagerly awaited, usually consulted, and praised via researchers and reviewers alike. The sequence includes a lot fabric nonetheless appropriate this present day - actually an important book for researchers in all fields of lifestyles sciences.
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A. I-Iopwood, J. Appl. Bacteriol. 34, 799 (1971).  STRAIN DEVELOPMENT 37 a certain number of colonies isolated and tested. However, since the induced improvements are usually rather small and the experimental error and the variability of testing and assaying can be of considerable magnitude, such approaches have not been practical. The answer to (a) then, will be dictated by the practical limiting factors of personnel, incubator and shaker space, and time. The answer to (b), which colonies should be isolated in the search for mutants with the desired characteristics among the many nonmutated ones, or among those which were changed negatively, is a perplexing one, and frequently only a random laborious approach will succeed.
While some alkylate F. J. DeSerres, H. V. Mailing, and B. B. Webber, Brookhaven Syrup. Biol. 20, 56 (1967).  STRAIN DEVELOPMENT 33 ing agents are carcinostatic, some are also carcinogenic, and safety precautions must be applied in pipetting (use a safety bulb) and disposal. It is beyond the scope of this article to present procedures for the application of many of the alkylating agents as mutagens; while a number have been shown to be effective mutagens in various genetic studies, probably two, the nitrogen mustards and the nitroso compounds, have had the widest application in strain development programs.
After colonies develop (3-6 mm in diameter), counts should be made for all exposure times wherever possible. The percentage survival for each exposure period may then be calculated. While a 1-5% rate of survival has been found more useful for obtaining mutants than greater survival values, it should be kept in mind that such data are based on reverse mutation studies and may not be particularly significant for the "gain" mutations sought in strain development. It may thus be worthwhile to occasionally isolate colonies from UV treatments allowing greater or lesser survival rates.