By John Maynard-Smith, David Harper
Why are animal indications trustworthy? this is often the primary challenge for evolutionary biologists drawn to signs. after all, no longer all signs are trustworthy; yet so much are, differently receivers of indications might forget about them. a couple of theoretical solutions were proposed and empirical experiences made, yet there nonetheless is still a large amount of confusion. The authors, one a theoretician the opposite a fieldworker, introduce a feeling of order to this chaos. an important explanation for confusion has been the tendency for various researchers to exploit both an analogous time period with diverse meanings, or assorted phrases with a similar that means. The authors try and make clear those ameliorations. A moment reason for confusion has arisen simply because many biologists proceed to imagine that there's just one right reason for sign reliability. The authors argue that the reliability of signs is maintained in numerous methods, suitable in several conditions, and that biologists needs to learn how to distinguish among them. during this ebook they clarify the various theories, provide examples of signalling platforms to which one or one other thought applies, and element to the numerous parts the place extra paintings, either theoretical and empirical, is needed.
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Extra info for Animal Signals (Ecology and Evolution)
Rather, sociologists can be assured that framing an analysis in terms of evolutionary theory in general, or sociobiology in particular, permits the development of alternative, and often competing, accounts of the influence of natural (and sexual) selection on human society and social behavior, accounts whose credibility will be adjudicated ultimately by the power of reason and the weight of empirical evidence. How Evolved Mental Adaptations Are Expressed in Contemporary Societies The work of sociologist and evolutionary psychologist Kanazawa and his colleagues provides an interesting example of the implications of analyzing contemporary social phenomena in light of a view of human nature as comprising a social mind consisting of archaic, evolved algorithms.
By focusing on comparisons between humans and other primates, Maryanski uses evolutionary reasoning to try to shed new light on the selection forces that, over vast stretches of time, constructed what is commonly viewed as “human nature” (Maryanski and Turner 1992). Another variant of cross-species analysis shifts attention from evolved human nature to fundamental forms of social organization that are often distributed across species lines (Machalek 1992). Extending the logic of Simmel’s “formal sociology” to include the study of sociality among both human and nonhuman social species, Machalek (1992) has analyzed the evolutionary forces that have made possible the evolution of “macrosocieties” among social species that are phylogenetically far removed from each other, the eusocial insects (especially ants) and humans.
M arti n social contexts such as those experienced by many inner-city African American males, contexts that can amplify male concern with reputation and status, thereby creating a persistent expectation of having to engage in dominance contests. Both the anticipation of such contests and the outcomes of those contests contribute to elevated testosterone levels among their participants, especially the winners. Thus, Mazur (2006: 28) concludes that a “culture of honor,” the dominance contests to which it gives rise, and the outcomes of those contests all can contribute to vicious cycles of violence, some of which are lethal for the participants.