By Dr Ayse Zarakol
No longer being of the West; being at the back of the West; no longer being sleek sufficient; no longer being constructed or industrialized, secular, civilized, Christian, obvious, or democratic - those descriptions have all served to stigmatize sure states via heritage. Drawing on constructivism in addition to the insights of social theorists and philosophers, After Defeat demonstrates that stigmatization in diplomacy can result in a feeling of nationwide disgrace, in addition to auto-Orientalism and inferior prestige. Ay?e Zarakol argues that stigmatized states develop into extra-sensitive to matters approximately prestige, and form their international coverage for this reason. The theoretical argument is supported via an in depth ancient evaluate of vital examples of the established/outsider dichotomy in the course of the evolution of the trendy states method, and in-depth experiences of Turkey after the 1st global struggle, Japan after the second one international struggle, and Russia after the chilly battle.
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Additional info for After Defeat: How the East Learned to Live with the West
G. North and Thomas, Rise of the Western World; McNeill, Pursuit of Power. For critiques of such approaches, see Ruggie, “Territoriality and Beyond,” 156; Checkel, “Norms, Institutions and National Identity,” 86; Wendt, Social Theory, pp. 100–2. g. Wohlforth, “Realism and the End”; Copeland, “Trade Expectations”; Brooks and Wohlforth, “Power, Globalization”; Schweller and Wohlforth, “Power Test,” etc. Waltz uses the same logic to explain the socialization of the Bolsheviks as well. 32 Outsiders and insiders in the international system the underlying motivations of victors8 in such interactions, but they generally agree that socialization is a rational response by defeated states (or elites in those states9) to various incentives.
There is even more continuity in the Russian case: party leaders who initiated the transition were the same people who continued to serve after the transition. , “Toward a Theory,” 359. The puzzling socialization of Turkey, Japan, and Russia 37 fight the great powers of the West one day became the emissaries of Westernization 20 the next day. To put it another way, none of the aforementioned explanations from mainstream IR as to why these countries reverted (with a vengeance) to emulating the West after revisionist “defeat” provides much mileage.
A number of simultaneous processes were involved in this gradual transition into modernity. g. Mitchell, Colonising Egypt, p. ” We may also invoke Bauman here, who argues that modernity is characterized by the drive toward order, management, naming, and segregating. g. Modernity and the Holocaust ; Modernity and Ambivalence. Wight, Systems of States, p. 135. Elias, Civilizing Process; Ruggie, “Territoriality and Beyond,” 162. Bauman, Modernity and Ambivalence, p. 5; see also Collins, From Divine Cosmos, pp.