Download Addiction: A Reference Encyclopedia by Howard Padwa PDF

By Howard Padwa

ISBN-10: 1598842293

ISBN-13: 9781598842296

ISBN-10: 1598842307

ISBN-13: 9781598842302

Dependancy: A Reference Encyclopedia deals immediately speak and transparent solutions on a subject matter usually sensationalized within the media and politicized in the course of campaigns. Drawing from a wide selection of resources, it presents readers with a concise but thorough overview of what we all know approximately all types of addictive behavior.Addiction surveys either the technological know-how of habit and its background within the usa with major sections: a story of the historical past of dependancy as a systematic and public coverage factor within the usa via a chain of alphabetically equipped entries concerned with corporations, participants, and occasions that experience impacted our considering habit. a lot of the paintings makes a speciality of substance abuse—alcohol, tobacco, opiates, cocaine—but the booklet additionally examines behaviors that experience just recently been well-known as almost certainly addictive, together with playing, sexual intercourse, web utilization, and extra.

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By the 1870s, medical researchers in both North America and Europe began observing that many Reference Essay | of their patients who took morphine became addicted to it, and began calling for greater precautions to be taken when the drug was used. Nonetheless, the drug remained popular, as did ordinary over-the-counter medicines that had opium among their main ingredients. In the United States, morphine addiction became prevalent after soldiers in the Civil War began using the drug to ease the pain of wounds incurred on the battlefield.

Initially, LSD enhances stimulus reception, while also altering senses of perception. Some users also report experiencing synesthesia, a crossover mixing of senses in which colors, shapes, and sounds seemingly merge. After this initial stage of enhanced and distorted perceptions, cognitive processes speed up, and many users believe that the thoughts and ideas they have during this period are insightful, philosophical, or even magical. Though these insights may seem profound to people under the influence of the drug, LSD makes it very difficult to communicate, and people who are experiencing an LSD high are often unable to express themselves verbally.

3 million people used smokeless tobacco regularly. 4 million people in the United States, smoked cigarettes daily in 2001. These figures, while still significant, mark a drastic drop from rates of tobacco use in the past. 9% in 2001. Other Prevalent Psychoactive Substances in the United States In addition to the substances discussed in the previous section, there are many other substances—some of them subject to tight legal controls, some of them completely unregulated—that people in the United States often use to experience psychoactive effects.

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