By Alluru S. Reddi
Written in a succinct query and resolution structure, this finished source covers all parts of nephrology and customary scientific eventualities. approximately one thousand questions with precise solutions offer nephrology fellows, practising nephrologists and clinicians a greater realizing of nephrology and reduction arrangements for nephrology and inner medication forums. Absolute Nephrology assessment beneficial properties the newest facts and guidance whereas gratifying a severe want in the nephrology community.
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Extra resources for Absolute Nephrology Review: An Essential Q & A Study Guide
Clinical Evaluation and Management. New York, Springer, 2014, pp. 201–213. 1 Fluids, Electrolytes, and Acid–Base Disorders 31 49. A 71-year-old alcoholic man is admitted for profuse lower GI bleed, requiring 12 units of packed RBCs in 6 h. Hemoglobin improved, but BP was slightly low. Although he is alert and oriented, he complains of oral tingling. 0 mg/dL with normal Mg2+ level. His ionized Ca2+ is at the lower limit of normal. His liver function tests are slightly elevated. Which one of the following is the MOST possible cause for his hypocalcemia?
A. B. C. D. E. Hyperparathyroidism Pseudohypothyroidism Vitamin D deficiency Low Ca2+ intake Type 2 diabetes The answer is C Elevated PTH, 1,25(OH)2D3, and alkaline phosphatase levels are observed in hyperparathyroidism; however, hypercalcemia is frequently associated with this disease. Pseudohypoparathyroidism is characterized by elevated phosphate and PTH levels, normal 25(OH)D3 and reduced 1,25(OH)2D3 levels. Low Ca2+ intake does not cause hypocalcemia, as Ca2+ levels are maintained by bone resorption.
B. C. D. E. Caffeine Theophylline Clenbuterol tainted heroin Cocaine and heroin None of the above The answer is C The patient does not demonstrate classic symptoms of heroin abuse, such as CNS and respiratory depression, miosis, or bradycardia. Although caffeine and theophylline can cause hypokalemia by cellular shift, urine toxicology was negative for these substances. Clenbuterol is a β2-agonist that is approved to treat bronchospasm in the horse. In addition, clenbuterol has been shown to increase muscle mass while simultaneously decreasing fat mass in lambs, horses, broiler chickens, and steers.