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“We are within the presence the following of a huge American poet whose voice at mid-century in her personal existence is more and more marked by means of ethical passion.”—New York occasions ebook Review
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Additional resources for A Wild Patience Has Taken Me This Far: Poems 1978-1981
When we imagine such a society, it is immediately obvious that "only a small community closely knit by ties of kinship, common sentiment, and belief, and placed in a stable environment, could live successfully by such a regime of ... "29 This is because the moment we imagine the introduction of certain common complexities into the society, we thereby imagine a set of problems with which a system of primary rules simply cannot deal. Three such problems are particularly worth noting. First, there is the problem of uncertainty about the rules.
L. A. , forced) to do it. 21 Austin's theory forces us to say that we are obligated or dutybound to surrender our money to a gunman in a stickup; that consequence, according to Hart, is sufficiently absurd to destroy any theory that entails it. If the gunman desires our money, expresses that desire to us, and makes it clear to us his intention and ability to inflict harm on us if we do not surrender the money, then, by Austin's definition, he has commanded that we give him the money. But, according to Austin, to have a duty just is to be under a command, so it looks as though we are forced to say (what seems absurd) that we are obligated to give the money to the gunman.
Hart's answer is this: in our dealing plausibly (in a way that Austin had not) with the problems of continuity and persistence of law and legal authority, it was necessary to make repeated references to rules-rules defining offices, rules of succession, rules for making laws, etc. It is the main flaw in Austin's theory that it can make no coherent place for rules or for the concept of rules. In seeking to avoid moral rules in the analysis of legality, Austin went so far as to avoid all rules, even the legal ones necessary for analyzing legally central locutions (even his favorite one of "sovereignty").