By Pradyot Patnaik
The definitive consultant to the unsafe homes of chemical compounds
Correlating chemical constitution with toxicity to people and the surroundings, and the chemical constitution of compounds to their damaging homes, A entire consultant to the unsafe houses of chemical compounds, 3rd Edition permits clients to evaluate the toxicity of a substance even if no experimental info exists. hence, it bridges the distance among unsafe fabrics and chemistry. largely up-to-date and improved, this reference:
- Examines organics, metals and inorganics, commercial solvents, universal gases, particulates, explosives, and radioactive components, overlaying every thing from toxicity and carcinogenicity to flammability and explosive reactivity to dealing with and disposal practices
- Arranges damaging chemicals in accordance with their chemical buildings and sensible teams for simple reference
- Includes up to date details at the poisonous, flammable, and explosive houses of chemical substances
- Covers extra metals within the chapters on poisonous and reactive metals
- Updates the edge publicity limits within the place of work air for a few substances
- Features the newest details on business solvents and poisonous and flammable gases
- Includes a variety of tables, formulation, and a word list for speedy reference
since it presents details that allows people with a chemistry heritage to accomplish tests with out past info, this accomplished reference appeals to chemists, chemical engineers, toxicologists, and forensic scientists, in addition to business hygienists, occupational physicians, Hazmat execs, and others in comparable fields.
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Extra resources for A comprehensive guide to the hazardous properties of chemical substances
For example, some heavy metals, such as lead and mercury, suppress humoral and cell-mediated host resistance. Similarly, some carbamate pesticides depress antibody response and phagocytosis, while cyclosporine primarily impairs the B cells. Toxicants affect the immune system in different ways. The effects are complex. Some substances suppress humoral immunity, others cell-mediated immunity, and certain toxicants stimulate speciﬁc immune functions. These effects may be classiﬁed 29 under three major categories: immunosuppression, immunodysfunction, and autoimmunity.
Aqueous samples are extracted using a suitable solvent. In the case of air analysis, the pollutants are adsorbed over charcoal, Tenax, or silica gel (depending on the nature of the substance) before analysis. Particulate material is collected using suitable membrane ﬁlters. II GLOSSARY GENERAL ABBREVIATIONS ACGIH American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists ACS American Chemical Society At. no. Atomic number At. wt. Atomic weight bp Boiling point CAS Chemical Abstracts Service EPA Environmental Protection Agency IARC International Agency for Research on Cancer MCA Manufacturing Chemists’ Association mp Melting point MSHA Marine Safety and Health Administration MW Molecular weight NFPA National Fire Protection Association NIOSH National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NRC National Research Council OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act RTECS Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (ﬁve-volume NIOSH compilation listing the toxicity data of more than 80,000 compounds; no longer published in book format, only available in CD-ROM) STP Standard Temperature and Pressure GLOSSARY OF TERMS IN TOXICITY AND FLAMMABILITY IDLH Immediately dangerous to life or health (term used for the purpose of respiratory selection; maximum concentration from which in the event of respirator failure one could escape within 30 minutes without experiencing irreversible health effects) LC50 Median lethal concentration 50 (calculated concentration of a chemical in air, exposure to which can cause the death of A Comprehensive Guide to the Hazardous Properties of Chemical Substances, by Pradyot Patnaik Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
A chemical is distributed rapidly throughout the body, after it enters the bloodstream. The extent to which it enters into an organ depends on the blood ﬂow, the ease of its diffusion through the local capillary wall and the cell membrane, and the afﬁnity for the chemical. A chemical can bind in a tissue or organ. Such binding can result in its accumulation or higher concentration in the tissue. If it is bound strongly, by irreversible covalent bonding, the effect can be signiﬁcantly toxic. However, a number of substances, as well as a major portion of the dose, undergo weak noncovalent binding that is reversible.