By Steffen Leonhardt, Thomas Falck, Petri Mähönen
This ebook includes papers from the overseas Workshop on Wearable and Implantable physique Sensor Networks, BSN 2007, held in March 2007 on the collage sanatorium Aachen, Germany. issues lined within the quantity contain new scientific measurements, clever bio-sensing textiles, low-power instant networking, procedure integration, clinical sign processing, multi-sensor information fusion, and on-going standardization actions.
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Additional resources for 4th International Workshop on Wearable and Implantable Body Sensor Networks (BSN 2007): March 26-28, 2007 RWTH Aachen University, Germany (IFMBE Proceedings)
The contactless sensors have an electrode spacing of 37 mm and a gain of 11. 6 mm and a gain of 346. In Fig. 2, the signals are normalized by the gains to give the skin surface voltage. Note that it is not possible to perform the two recordings simultaneously. 5 Time [sec] Fig. 2 Recorded EMG signals with both an active- and a contactless electrode Active contact electrode Contactless electrode -100 Vrms [dBV] Because of the capacitive coupling, the impedance of the sensor is extremely high. The result is that environmental noise is easily picked up.
Croce, B. Magnani, and P. Dario, "Piezoelectric -driven stereolithographyfabricated micropump," Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, vol. 5, 1995. S. Bohm, W. Olthuis, and P. Bergveld, "A plastic micropump constructed with conventional techniques and materials," Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, vol. 77, 1999. A. Manz, E. Verpoorte, D. E. Raymond, C. S. Effenhauser, N. Burggraf, and H. M. Widmer, "Micro Total Analysis Systems," P. : Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1995, pp. 5-27.
Fig. 3 Simplified electrical equivalent circuit for the skin-electrode impedance The standard BIS electrodes are composed of aluminium (Al) and a hydrogel (with a resistive behaviour), which acts as adhesive and electrolytic medium (ZContact = RGel). Due to the lack of electrolytic medium, textile electrodes present a strong capacitive impedance ZContact, which is dependent on the contact between electrode and skin. Small contact changes can then have a big influence in the measurements. High skin impedance affects the common mode voltage in the measuring system, which leads to additional errors in the measurement.